Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of white blood cells called as lymphocytes in bone marrow. It is a malignant disease in which early precursor lymphoid cells proliferate and replace the normal hematopoietic cells of bone marrow. ALL is the most common type of cancer in children. There is overproduction of lymphoblasts in the bone marrow when a person suffers from ALL that continuously multiply, damaging the bone marrow by preventing the production of normal cells such as red blood cells (RBC) and platelets. Increase in number of lymphoblast in the blood results in the decline of healthy RBCs, white blood cells, and platelets. This leads to anemia, bleeding, and infection. The cancer can spread to the spinal cord and the brain.
There are several types of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. B-cell ALL, T-cell ALL, and Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL (Ph+ ALL) are the three primary types of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The most common type is the B-cell ALL. Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL accounts for one third of all adult ALL, but is extremely rare in children. Treatment for Ph+ ALL patients involves precise drugs that target the gene product of Philadelphia chromosome.
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia can be characterized into childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Major signs and symptoms related with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are anemia, paleness, fever, loss of appetite, pain in joints, bruising, weakness and fatigue, and lymph nodes enlargement. Factors such as increase in incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia among children and continuous innovation of therapies by key players are likely to drive the growth of this market in the near future.
In addition, major factors driving the growth of the acute lymphoblastic leukemia market are rise in incidence and prevalence of ALL, increase in investment in research and development, and rise in health care expenditure. Launch of new products, agreements and collaborations, product pipelines, clinical trials, and acquisitions and mergers are some of the significant strategies adopted by key market players, which are projected to fuel the market growth for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, high costs of therapies and adverse events as a result of therapies are factors that impede the growth of the market.
The global acute lymphoblastic leukemia market has been segmented based on treatment type, drug class, end-user, and region. Based on treatment type, the acute lymphoblastic leukemia market is segmented into chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and bone marrow transplantation. Availability of a wide range of chemotherapeutics agents for treatment of cancer and upcoming innovative improvement in the field of chemotherapy are factors which are anticipated to boost the market growth of the chemotherapy segment during the forecast period. Based on drug class, the global market is segmented into antineoplastic agents, corticosteroids, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, colony stimulating factors, and others. The others segment includes antifungals and antimicrobials, which are recommended to take as soon as the disease is detected. On the basis of end-user, the market is segmented into hospitals, clinics, and others.
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Geographically, the global acute lymphoblastic leukemia market is distributed over North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in developed nations. North America holds a significant share of the global acute lymphoblastic leukemia market due to high incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients owing to genetic factors. Environmental factors and exposure to high dose of radiation are further contributing toward high incidence of ALL patients in this region. Asia Pacific is a highly lucrative market for acute lymphoblastic leukemia owing to increase in incidence of cancer patients.
Major players operating in the market are Biogen Idec, Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene Corporation, ERYTECH Pharma, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Genzyme Corporation, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Limited, and Pfizer, Inc.