Neurocutaneous disorder affects the brain, peripheral nerves, and spine. Neurocutaneous disorders comprise a group of central nervous system disorders with simultaneous lesions in the eye, visceral organs, and skin. Tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, and Sturge-Weber syndrome are the most common neurocutaneous disorders. Neurofibromatosis can be of following types: type I, II, and schwannomatosis. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), neurocutaneous disorders occur in 1 in 6,000 people in the U.S.
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Neurofibromatosis type I is the most common type of neurocutaneous disorder that affects nerves outside the brain and spinal cord called peripheral nerves. Neurofibromatosis type II arises from the central nervous system and affects hearing and balance in affected individuals. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, neurofibromatosis type 1 affects approximately 1 in 3,000 to 4,000 births in the U.S., whereas neurofibromatosis type II has less frequency and is reported in nearly 1 in 25,000 births in the U.S. The cause of Sturge-Weber syndrome is unknown and the disorder is considered sporadic. Tuberous sclerosis affects retinal areas of the eye and inside of the brain, spinal cord, lungs, skin, kidney, bones, and other parts. It leads to seizures, disability in learning, and neurological disability. Individuals affected with schwannomatosis undergo intense pain due to increase in size of schwannoma, as it presses against the nerve and surrounding tissues. Other symptoms associated could include weakness or numbness in fingers and toes. Individuals affected with Sturge-Weber syndrome develop red mark on the face near the eye and forehead. The mark is formed due to accumulation of several blood vessels under the skin. Sturge-Weber syndrome can lead to neurological effects such as muscle weakness, seizures, and disabilities.
Diagnosis of neurocutaneous disorder is performed through physical examination and certain diagnostic tests. In order to assess the condition of a patient, a physician runs a complete medical history assessment if any family member had previously had symptoms of neurocutaneous disorder. Diagnosis of neurocutaneous disorder includes genetic test, blood test, X-ray, CT scan, MRI scan, EEG (electroencephalogram), and eye examination. These are lifelong disorders and cannot be cured completely, but can be managed to help individuals to maximize their capabilities.
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The global neurocutaneous disorders market is driven by increase in government initiatives to ensure early diagnosis, rise in awareness about genetic disorders, improvement in health care infrastructure, and surge in research and development activities. However, low awareness in developing countries, stringent regulations, and lack of diagnostic facilities are projected to restrain the global neurocutaneous disorders market during the forecast period.
The global neurocutaneous disorders market can be segmented into five major regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is expected to dominate the global market during the forecast period owing to increase in patient population, better health care infrastructure, and presence of major players in the region.
Europe is projected to account for the second largest market share during the forecast period. Increase in investment, strong collaboration among research institutes and private players, and high awareness are anticipated to boost the growth of the market in the region during the forecast period.
The global neurocutaneous disorders market in Asia Pacific is expected to grow at a rapid pace owing to increasing population, high acceptance of new treatment methodologies, and improvement in health care infrastructure in countries such as India. The neurocutaneous disorders market in Latin America and Middle East & Africa is expected to grow under the influence of North America and European market. Increase in focus of major players in these regions is expected to drive the neurocutaneous disorders market in Latin America and Middle East & Africa during the forecast period. However, low awareness acts as a major restrain of the market in these regions.
Major players in the global neurocutaneous disorders market include Pfizer, Inc., Shire, Novartis AG, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., and Sanofi.