Lighting plays a crucial role in mining industry. The miners depend upon visual cues to detect threats related to falls of ground, slips/trips/falls (STFs), moving machinery, and other safety hazards.All the major countries in the underground mining sector have their set own set of guidelines regarding safe mine lighting systems. These specifications are mostly set according to the type of mining and the internal/external environment of the mines. Usually the lighting devices are tested in government facilities.
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Methane that is given off during coal mining can cause underground explosion. Thus, accounting to the threatening conditions, the lighting source used in mining activities should have two basic properties: intrinsically safe and explosion proof. An intrinsically safe light is one in which the current in the light is of low energy to avoid sparks and explosion in case of short circuits.
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The lighting system for underground mines should also have features such as high-levels of brightness and intensity, high output per unit of watt, low-voltage and current requirements, low radiated heat, lightweight, resistant to shock, vibration and atmospheric pressure fluctuations. The light source should draw constant current instead of constant voltage.
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The usual standard for any light in the underground setting is to be vigorous, shockproof, dustproof and waterproof. Ingress Protection (IP) is rated at a minimum IP67, but recent advances allow lights to be uprated to IP6K7 and IP6K9K, which provides more protection against high-pressure sprays used while washing.