Etoposide is a derivative of epipodophyllotoxins that are derived from Mandragora officianarum (plant). Its chemical name is 4′-demethyl-epipodophylotoxin 9-[4,6-O-(R)-ethylidene-β-D-glucopyranoside] and it was introduced in the market in 1970. Currently, it is utilized extensively in manufacturing drugs that help treat various human malignant diseases such as testicular cancer, lymphomas (Hodgkin, non-Hodgkin), leukemia and lung cancer. Other diseases that are treated by consumption of etoposide include Ewing sarcoma, Kaposi disease, rhabdomyosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, pediatric brain tumors, gastric cancer, Wilms tumor, multiple myeloma, hepatoma, adenocarcinoma and uterine cancer.
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Etoposide acts by inhibiting the activity of topoisomerase II which is responsible for uncoiling of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and thus affects the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and repair. Etoposide is usually administered in combination with various antineoplastic drugs such as cisplatin that have different modes of action. Etoposide is administered in the patient’s body through oral and intravenous routes. Intravenous administration of etoposide is given under the supervision of a doctor since overdose of the same might result in malfunctioning of human body. Etoposide solution for injection is available in 5 mL vial, 25 mL vial and 50 mL vial, and the dose is 20 mg/mL. Etoposide injections are usually given to patients whose cancer condition have not improved or have worsened post radiation treatment or other medications.
Etopophos, Toposar and Vepesid are some of the branded versions of the Etoposide. Among all these, Etopophos accounts for the largest revenue share in the total etoposide market. Rising incidence of lung cancer has been considered as one of the major factors driving the market for etoposide. According to the American Lung Association (ALA), an estimated 159,260 people with lung cancer are expected to die in the American region in 2014 that will account for approximately 27% of all cancer deaths in the same year. Also, increasing incidence of Ewing sarcoma will propel the growth of etoposide market.
The increasing number of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients across the globe will further drive the growth of etoposide market as people with AIDS are at the high risk of developing Kaposi’s sarcoma. It has been estimated by the World Health Organization that in 2012, around 35.3 million people were living with AIDS worldwide; of these around 1.6 million people died. AIDS also increases the risk for Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin syndrome. Increasing number of patients suffering with gastric cancer will also augment the growth of etoposide market. Various epidemiological sources indicate that around 1 million people suffer from gastric cancer every year across the globe. Despite all the advantages, the growth of etoposide market might get hampered due to the side effects associated with the administration of etoposide. Difficulty in breathing or swallowing, seizures, hives, constipation, hair loss and unusual tiredness or weakness are some of the side-effects that are associated with etoposide.
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North America accounted for the largest revenue share of the total etoposide market in 2012 owing to the presence of major manufacturing companies in the region along with the improving governmental initiatives for the development and manufacturing of etoposide. Asia-Pacific is expected to show highest CAGR during the forecast period. This growth is attributed to rising incidences of various diseases such as uterine cancer, multiple myeloma, hepatoma and lymphoma in the region. Increasing government funding for the R&D of etoposide will further drive the growth of etoposide market in the region. Major players operating in the market includes Pharmedic Laboratories Pvt. Ltd, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Ben Venue Laboratories, and Accord Healthcare, Inc. among other significant players.